Emerging Infectious Diseases - CDC (2024)

Volume 30, Number 5—May 2024

[PDF - 14.66 MB - 228 pages]

Last Issue - Volume 30, Number 4—April 2024 Podcasts

In This Issue

  • Synopses
  • Research
  • Dispatches
  • Research Letters
  • About the Cover
Synopses

Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Virology, Pathogenesis, and Pathology [PDF - 1.43 MB - 7 pages]

M. G. Frank et al.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by CCHF virus, is a tickborne disease that can cause a range of illness outcomes, from asymptomatic infection to fatal viral hemorrhagic fever; the disease has been described in >30 countries. We conducted a literature review to provide an overview of the virology, pathogenesis, and pathology of CCHF for clinicians. The virus life cycle and molecular interactions are complex and not fully described. Although pathogenesis and immunobiology are not yet fully understood, it is clear that multiple processes contribute to viral entry, replication, and pathological damage. Limited autopsy reports describe multiorgan involvement with extravasation and hemorrhages. Advanced understanding of CCHF virus pathogenesis and immunology will improve patient care and accelerate the development of medical countermeasures for CCHF.

EID Frank MG, Weaver G, Raabe V. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Virology, Pathogenesis, and Pathology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):847-853. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231646
AMA Frank MG, Weaver G, Raabe V. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Virology, Pathogenesis, and Pathology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):847-853. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231646.
APA Frank, M. G., Weaver, G., & Raabe, V. (2024). Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Virology, Pathogenesis, and Pathology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 847-853. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231646.

Medscape CME Activity

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Prevention [PDF - 1.59 MB - 10 pages]

M. G. Frank et al.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tickborne infection that can range from asymptomatic to fatal and has been described in >30 countries. Early identification and isolation of patients with suspected or confirmed CCHF and the use of appropriate prevention and control measures are essential for preventing human-to-human transmission. Here, we provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, and prevention and control of CCHF. CCHF poses a continued public health threat given its wide geographic distribution, potential to spread to new regions, propensity for genetic variability, and potential for severe and fatal illness, in addition to the limited medical countermeasures for prophylaxis and treatment. A high index of suspicion, comprehensive travel and epidemiologic history, and clinical evaluation are essential for prompt diagnosis. Infection control measures can be effective in reducing the risk for transmission but require correct and consistent application.

EID Frank MG, Weaver G, Raabe V. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Prevention. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):854-863. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231647
AMA Frank MG, Weaver G, Raabe V. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):854-863. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231647.
APA Frank, M. G., Weaver, G., & Raabe, V. (2024). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 854-863. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231647.

Medscape CME Activity

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Diagnosis, Clinical Management, and Therapeutics [PDF - 1.20 MB - 10 pages]

M. G. Frank et al.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the most geographically widespread tickborne viral infection worldwide and has a fatality rate of up to 62%. Despite its widespread range and high fatality rate, no vaccines or treatments are currently approved by regulatory agencies in the United States or Europe. Supportive treatment remains the standard of care, but the use of antiviral medications developed for other viral infections have been considered. We reviewed published literature to summarize the main aspects of CCHFV infection in humans. We provide an overview of diagnostic testing and management and medical countermeasures, including investigational vaccines and limited therapeutics. CCHFV continues to pose a public health threat because of its wide geographic distribution, potential to spread to new regions, propensity for genetic variability, potential for severe and fatal illness, and limited medical countermeasures for prophylaxis and treatment. Clinicians should become familiar with available diagnostic and management tools for CCHFV infections in humans.

EID Frank MG, Weaver G, Raabe V. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Diagnosis, Clinical Management, and Therapeutics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):864-873. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231648
AMA Frank MG, Weaver G, Raabe V. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Diagnosis, Clinical Management, and Therapeutics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):864-873. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231648.
APA Frank, M. G., Weaver, G., & Raabe, V. (2024). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus for Clinicians—Diagnosis, Clinical Management, and Therapeutics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 864-873. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231648.

Case Series of Jamestown Canyon Virus Infections with Neurologic Outcomes, Canada, 2011–2016 [PDF - 713 KB - 8 pages]

V. Meier-Stephenson et al.

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquitoborne orthobunyavirus in the California serogroup that circulates throughout Canada and the United States. Most JCV exposures result in asymptomatic infection or a mild febrile illness, but JCV can also cause neurologic diseases, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We describe a case series of confirmed JCV-mediated neuroinvasive disease among persons from the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec, and Nova Scotia, Canada, during 2011–2016. We highlight the case definitions, epidemiology, unique features and clinical manifestations, disease seasonality, and outcomes for those cases. Two of the patients (from Quebec and Nova Scotia) might have acquired JCV infections during travel to the northeastern region of the United States. This case series collectively demonstrates JCV’s wide distribution and indicates the need for increased awareness of JCV as the underlying cause of meningitis/meningoencephalitis during mosquito season.

EID Meier-Stephenson V, Drebot MA, Dimitrova K, DiQuinzio M, Fonseca K, Forrest D, et al. Case Series of Jamestown Canyon Virus Infections with Neurologic Outcomes, Canada, 2011–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):874-881. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.221258
AMA Meier-Stephenson V, Drebot MA, Dimitrova K, et al. Case Series of Jamestown Canyon Virus Infections with Neurologic Outcomes, Canada, 2011–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):874-881. doi:10.3201/eid3005.221258.
APA Meier-Stephenson, V., Drebot, M. A., Dimitrova, K., DiQuinzio, M., Fonseca, K., Forrest, D....Wood, H. (2024). Case Series of Jamestown Canyon Virus Infections with Neurologic Outcomes, Canada, 2011–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 874-881. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.221258.

Coccidioidomycosis-Related Hospital Visits, Texas, USA, 2016–2021 [PDF - 1.59 MB - 8 pages]

H. Mayfield et al.

We analyzed hospital discharge records of patients with coccidioidomycosis-related codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification, to estimate the prevalence of hospital visits associated with the disease in Texas, USA. Using Texas Health Care Information Collection data for 2016–2021, we investigated the demographic characteristics and geographic distribution of the affected population, assessed prevalence of hospital visits for coccidioidomycosis, and examined how prevalence varied by demographic and geographic factors. In Texas, 709 coccidioidomycosis-related inpatient and outpatient hospital visits occurred in 2021; prevalence was 3.17 cases per 100,000 total hospital visits in 2020. Geographic location, patient sex, and race/ethnicity were associated with increases in coccidioidomycosis-related hospital visits; male, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic patients had the highest prevalence of coccidioidomycosis compared with other groups. Increased surveillance and healthcare provider education and outreach are needed to ensure timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidomycosis in Texas and elsewhere.

EID Mayfield H, Davila V, Penedo E. Coccidioidomycosis-Related Hospital Visits, Texas, USA, 2016–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):882-889. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231624
AMA Mayfield H, Davila V, Penedo E. Coccidioidomycosis-Related Hospital Visits, Texas, USA, 2016–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):882-889. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231624.
APA Mayfield, H., Davila, V., & Penedo, E. (2024). Coccidioidomycosis-Related Hospital Visits, Texas, USA, 2016–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 882-889. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231624.

Congenital Syphilis Prevention Challenges, Pacific Coast of Colombia, 2018–2022 [PDF - 933 KB - 10 pages]

J. F. Fuertes-Bucheli et al.

High incidences of congenital syphilis have been reported in areas along the Pacific coast of Colombia. In this retrospective study, conducted during 2018–2022 at a public hospital in Buenaventura, Colombia, we analyzed data from 3,378 pregnant women. The opportunity to prevent congenital syphilis was missed in 53.1% of mothers because of the lack of syphilis screening. Characteristics of higher maternal social vulnerability and late access to prenatal care decreased the probability of having >1 syphilis screening test, thereby increasing the probability of having newborns with congenital syphilis. In addition, the opportunity to prevent congenital syphilis was missed in 41.5% of patients with syphilis because of the lack of treatment, which also increased the probability of having newborns with congenital syphilis. We demonstrate the urgent need to improve screening and treatment capabilities for maternal syphilis, particularly among pregnant women who are more socially vulnerable.

EID Fuertes-Bucheli JF, Buenaventura-Alegría DP, Rivas-Mina AM, Pacheco-López R. Congenital Syphilis Prevention Challenges, Pacific Coast of Colombia, 2018–2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):890-899. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231273
AMA Fuertes-Bucheli JF, Buenaventura-Alegría DP, Rivas-Mina AM, et al. Congenital Syphilis Prevention Challenges, Pacific Coast of Colombia, 2018–2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):890-899. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231273.
APA Fuertes-Bucheli, J. F., Buenaventura-Alegría, D. P., Rivas-Mina, A. M., & Pacheco-López, R. (2024). Congenital Syphilis Prevention Challenges, Pacific Coast of Colombia, 2018–2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 890-899. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231273.

Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Kakuma Refugee Camp Complex, Kenya, 2020–2021 [PDF - 1.52 MB - 8 pages]

M. Ope et al.

Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection in populations at increased risk for poor health is critical to reducing disease. We describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Kakuma Refugee Camp Complex, Kenya. We performed descriptive analyses of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the camp and surrounding community during March 16, 2020‒December 31, 2021. We identified cases in accordance with national guidelines.We estimated fatality ratios and attack rates over time using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing for refugees, host community members, and national population. Of the 18,864 SARS-CoV-2 tests performed, 1,024 were positive, collected from 664 refugees and 360 host community members. Attack rates were 325.0/100,000 population (CFR 2.9%) for refugees,150.2/100,000 population (CFR 1.11%) for community, and 628.8/100,000 population (CFR 1.83%) nationwide. During 2020–2021, refugees experienced a lower attack rate but higher CFR than the national population, underscoring the need to prioritize SARS-CoV-2 mitigation measures, including vaccination.

EID Ope M, Musyoka R, Kiogora J, Wambugu J, Hunsperger E, Emukule GO, et al. Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Kakuma Refugee Camp Complex, Kenya, 2020–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):900-907. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231042
AMA Ope M, Musyoka R, Kiogora J, et al. Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Kakuma Refugee Camp Complex, Kenya, 2020–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):900-907. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231042.
APA Ope, M., Musyoka, R., Kiogora, J., Wambugu, J., Hunsperger, E., Emukule, G. O....Eidex, R. B. (2024). Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Kakuma Refugee Camp Complex, Kenya, 2020–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 900-907. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231042.
Research

Identifying Contact Time Required for Secondary Transmission of Clostridioides difficile Infections by Using Real-Time Locating System [PDF - 784 KB - 8 pages]

M. Kim et al.

Considering patient room shortages and prevalence of other communicable diseases, reassessing the isolation of patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is imperative. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the secondary CDI transmission rate in a hospital in South Korea, where patients with CDI were not isolated. Using data from a real-time locating system and electronic medical records, we investigated patients who had both direct and indirect contact with CDI index patients. The primary outcome was secondary CDI transmission, identified by whole-genome sequencing. Among 909 direct and 2,711 indirect contact cases, 2 instances of secondary transmission were observed (2 [0.05%] of 3,620 cases), 1 transmission via direct contact and 1 via environmental sources. A low level of direct contact (113 minutes) was required for secondary CDI transmission. Our findings support the adoption of exhaustive standard preventive measures, including environmental decontamination, rather than contact isolation of CDI patients in nonoutbreak settings.

EID Kim M, Kim J, Ra H, Jeong S, Park Y, Won D, et al. Identifying Contact Time Required for Secondary Transmission of Clostridioides difficile Infections by Using Real-Time Locating System. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):908-915. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231588
AMA Kim M, Kim J, Ra H, et al. Identifying Contact Time Required for Secondary Transmission of Clostridioides difficile Infections by Using Real-Time Locating System. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):908-915. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231588.
APA Kim, M., Kim, J., Ra, H., Jeong, S., Park, Y., Won, D....Kim, H. (2024). Identifying Contact Time Required for Secondary Transmission of Clostridioides difficile Infections by Using Real-Time Locating System. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 908-915. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231588.

Mpox Diagnosis, Behavioral Risk Modification, and Vaccination Uptake among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom, 2022 [PDF - 672 KB - 10 pages]

D. Ogaz et al.

During the 2022 multicountry mpox outbreak, the United Kingdom identified cases beginning in May. UK cases increased in June, peaked in July, then rapidly declined after September 2022. Public health responses included community-supported messaging and targeted mpox vaccination among eligible gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Using data from an online survey of GBMSM during November–December 2022, we examined self-reported mpox diagnoses, behavioral risk modification, and mpox vaccination offer and uptake. Among 1,333 participants, only 35 (2.6%) ever tested mpox-positive, but 707 (53%) reported behavior modification to avoid mpox. Among vaccine-eligible GBMSM, uptake was 69% (95% CI 65%–72%; 601/875) and was 92% (95% CI 89%–94%; 601/655) among those offered vaccine. GBMSM self-identifying as bisexual, reporting lower educational qualifications, or identifying as unemployed were less likely to be vaccinated. Equitable offer and provision of mpox vaccine are needed to minimize the risk for future outbreaks and mpox-related health inequalities.

EID Ogaz D, Enayat Q, Brown J, Phillips D, Wilkie R, Jayes D, et al. Mpox Diagnosis, Behavioral Risk Modification, and Vaccination Uptake among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):916-925. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230676
AMA Ogaz D, Enayat Q, Brown J, et al. Mpox Diagnosis, Behavioral Risk Modification, and Vaccination Uptake among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):916-925. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230676.
APA Ogaz, D., Enayat, Q., Brown, J., Phillips, D., Wilkie, R., Jayes, D....Mohammed, H. (2024). Mpox Diagnosis, Behavioral Risk Modification, and Vaccination Uptake among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 916-925. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230676.

Analysis of Suspected Measles Cases with Discrepant Measles-Specific IgM and rRT-PCR Test Results, Japan [PDF - 516 KB - 8 pages]

Y. Kuba et al.

We investigated clinically suspected measles cases that had discrepant real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and measles-specific IgM test results to determine diagnoses. We performed rRT-PCR and measles-specific IgM testing on samples from 541 suspected measles cases. Of the 24 IgM-positive and rRT-PCR­–negative cases, 20 were among children who received a measles-containing vaccine within the previous 6 months; most had low IgG relative avidity indexes (RAIs). The other 4 cases were among adults who had an unknown previous measles history, unknown vaccination status, and high RAIs. We detected viral nucleic acid for viruses other than measles in 15 (62.5%) of the 24 cases with discrepant rRT-PCR and IgM test results. Measles vaccination, measles history, and contact history should be considered in suspected measles cases with discrepant rRT-PCR and IgM test results. If in doubt, measles IgG avidity and PCR testing for other febrile exanthematous viruses can help confirm or refute the diagnosis.

EID Kuba Y, Nidaira M, Maeshiro N, Komase K, Kamiya H, Kyan H. Analysis of Suspected Measles Cases with Discrepant Measles-Specific IgM and rRT-PCR Test Results, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):926-933. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231757
AMA Kuba Y, Nidaira M, Maeshiro N, et al. Analysis of Suspected Measles Cases with Discrepant Measles-Specific IgM and rRT-PCR Test Results, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):926-933. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231757.
APA Kuba, Y., Nidaira, M., Maeshiro, N., Komase, K., Kamiya, H., & Kyan, H. (2024). Analysis of Suspected Measles Cases with Discrepant Measles-Specific IgM and rRT-PCR Test Results, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 926-933. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231757.

Kinetics of Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Asymptomatic Persons [PDF - 830 KB - 7 pages]

R. Plümers et al.

To determine the kinetics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in asymptomatic persons and to evaluate viral load doubling time and half-life, we retrospectively tested samples retained from 32 HEV RNA-positive asymptomatic blood donors in Germany. Close-meshed monitoring of viral load and seroconversion in intervals of ≈4 days provided more information about the kinetics of asymptomatic HEV infections. We determined that a typical median infection began with PCR-detectable viremia at 36 days and a maximum viral load of 2.0 × 104 IU/mL. Viremia doubled in 2.4 days and had a half-life of 1.6 days. HEV IgM started to rise on about day 33 and peaked on day 36; IgG started to rise on about day 32 and peaked on day 53. Although HEV IgG titers remained stable, IgM titers became undetectable in 40% of donors. Knowledge of the dynamics of HEV viremia is useful for assessing the risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E.

EID Plümers R, Dreier J, Knabbe C, Steinmann E, Todt D, Vollmer T. Kinetics of Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Asymptomatic Persons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):934-940. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231764
AMA Plümers R, Dreier J, Knabbe C, et al. Kinetics of Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Asymptomatic Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):934-940. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231764.
APA Plümers, R., Dreier, J., Knabbe, C., Steinmann, E., Todt, D., & Vollmer, T. (2024). Kinetics of Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Asymptomatic Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 934-940. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231764.

Cross-Sectional Study of Q Fever Seroprevalence among Blood Donors, Israel, 2021 [PDF - 785 KB - 6 pages]

N. Ghanem-Zoubi et al.

We evaluated Q fever prevalence in blood donors and assessed the epidemiologic features of the disease in Israel in 2021. We tested serum samples for Coxeilla burnetii phase I and II IgG using immunofluorescent assay, defining a result of >200 as seropositive. We compared geographic and demographic data. We included 1,473 participants; 188 (12.7%) were seropositive. The calculated sex- and age-adjusted national seroprevalence was 13.9% (95% CI 12.2%–15.7%). Male sex and age were independently associated with seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2; p = 0.005 for male sex; OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.03; p<0.001 for age). Residence in the coastal plain was independently associated with seropositivity for Q fever (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.3; p<0.001); residence in rural and farming regions was not. Q fever is highly prevalent in Israel. The unexpected spatial distribution in the nonrural coastal plain suggests an unrecognized mode of transmission.

EID Ghanem-Zoubi N, Atiya-Nasagi Y, Stoyanov E, Szwarcwort M, Darawsha B, Paul M, et al. Cross-Sectional Study of Q Fever Seroprevalence among Blood Donors, Israel, 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):941-946. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230645
AMA Ghanem-Zoubi N, Atiya-Nasagi Y, Stoyanov E, et al. Cross-Sectional Study of Q Fever Seroprevalence among Blood Donors, Israel, 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):941-946. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230645.
APA Ghanem-Zoubi, N., Atiya-Nasagi, Y., Stoyanov, E., Szwarcwort, M., Darawsha, B., Paul, M....Shinar, E. (2024). Cross-Sectional Study of Q Fever Seroprevalence among Blood Donors, Israel, 2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 941-946. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230645.

COVID-19 Vaccination Site Accessibility, United States, December 11, 2020–March 29, 2022 [PDF - 5.93 MB - 9 pages]

R. Yee et al.

During December 11, 2020–March 29, 2022, the US government delivered ≈700 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine to vaccination sites, resulting in vaccination of ≈75% of US adults during that period. We evaluated accessibility of vaccination sites. Sites were accessible by walking within 15 minutes by 46.6% of persons, 30 minutes by 74.8%, 45 minutes by 82.8%, and 60 minutes by 86.7%. When limited to populations in counties with high social vulnerability, accessibility by walking was 55.3%, 81.1%, 86.7%, and 89.4%, respectively. By driving, lowest accessibility was 96.5% at 15 minutes. For urban/rural categories, the 15-minute walking accessibility between noncore and large central metropolitan areas ranged from 27.2% to 65.1%; driving accessibility was 79.9% to 99.5%. By 30 minutes driving accessibility for all urban/rural categories was >95.9%. Walking time variations across jurisdictions and between urban/rural areas indicate that potential gains could have been made by improving walkability or making transportation more readily available.

EID Yee R, Carranza D, Kim C, Trinidad J, Tobias JL, Bhatkoti R, et al. COVID-19 Vaccination Site Accessibility, United States, December 11, 2020–March 29, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):947-955. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230357
AMA Yee R, Carranza D, Kim C, et al. COVID-19 Vaccination Site Accessibility, United States, December 11, 2020–March 29, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):947-955. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230357.
APA Yee, R., Carranza, D., Kim, C., Trinidad, J., Tobias, J. L., Bhatkoti, R....Kuwabara, S. (2024). COVID-19 Vaccination Site Accessibility, United States, December 11, 2020–March 29, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 947-955. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230357.

SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada, January 2020–January 2022 [PDF - 2.84 MB - 12 pages]

A. D. Kehoe et al.

We estimated COVID-19 transmission potential and case burden by variant type in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada, during January 23, 2020–January 27, 2022; we also estimated the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce transmission. We estimated time-varying reproduction number (Rt) over 7-day sliding windows and nonoverlapping time-windows determined by timing of policy changes. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for each variant and compared rates to determine differences in burden among provinces. Rt corresponding with emergence of the Delta variant increased in all 3 provinces; British Columbia had the largest increase, 43.85% (95% credible interval [CrI] 40.71%–46.84%). Across the study period, IRR was highest for Omicron (8.74 [95% CrI 8.71–8.77]) and burden highest in Alberta (IRR1.80 [95% CrI 1.79–1.81]). Initiating public health interventions was associated with lower Rt and relaxing restrictions and emergence of new variants associated with increases in Rt.

EID Kehoe AD, Mallhi A, Barton CR, Martin HM, Turner CM, Hua X, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada, January 2020–January 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):956-967. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230482
AMA Kehoe AD, Mallhi A, Barton CR, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada, January 2020–January 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):956-967. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230482.
APA Kehoe, A. D., Mallhi, A., Barton, C. R., Martin, H. M., Turner, C. M., Hua, X....Fung, I. (2024). SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada, January 2020–January 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 956-967. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230482.

Economic Burden of Acute Gastroenteritis among Members of Integrated Healthcare Delivery System, United States, 2014–2016 [PDF - 354 KB - 6 pages]

J. F. Dickerson et al.

We conducted a large surveillance study among members of an integrated healthcare delivery system in Pacific Northwest of the United States to estimate medical costs attributable to medically attended acute gastroenteritis (MAAGE) on the day care was sought and during 30-day follow-up. We used multivariable regression to compare costs of MAAGE and non-MAAGE cases matched on age, gender, and index time. Differences accounted for confounders, including race, ethnicity, and history of chronic underlying conditions. Analyses included 73,140 MAAGE episodes from adults and 18,617 from children who were Kaiser Permanente Northwest members during 2014–2016. Total costs were higher for MAAGE cases relative to non-MAAGE comparators as were costs on the day care was sought and costs during follow-up. Costs of MAAGE are substantial relative to the cost of usual-care medical services, and much of the burden accrues during short-term follow-up.

EID Dickerson JF, Salas SB, Donald J, Groom HC, Lee MH, Mattison CP, et al. Economic Burden of Acute Gastroenteritis among Members of Integrated Healthcare Delivery System, United States, 2014–2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):968-973. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230356
AMA Dickerson JF, Salas SB, Donald J, et al. Economic Burden of Acute Gastroenteritis among Members of Integrated Healthcare Delivery System, United States, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):968-973. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230356.
APA Dickerson, J. F., Salas, S. B., Donald, J., Groom, H. C., Lee, M. H., Mattison, C. P....Schmidt, M. A. (2024). Economic Burden of Acute Gastroenteritis among Members of Integrated Healthcare Delivery System, United States, 2014–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 968-973. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230356.

Antimicrobial Resistance as Risk Factor for Recurrent Bacteremia after Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella spp. Community-Onset Bacteremia [PDF - 756 KB - 10 pages]

S. Abbara et al.

We investigated links between antimicrobial resistance in community-onset bacteremia and 1-year bacteremia recurrence by using the clinical data warehouse of Europe’s largest university hospital group in France. We included adult patients hospitalized with an incident community-onset Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella spp. bacteremia during 2017–2019. We assessed risk factors of 1-year recurrence using Fine–Gray regression models. Of the 3,617 patients included, 291 (8.0%) had >1 recurrence episode. Third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistance was significantly associated with increased recurrence risk after incident Klebsiella spp. (hazard ratio 3.91 [95% CI 2.32–6.59]) or E. coli (hazard ratio 2.35 [95% CI 1.50–3.68]) bacteremia. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus bacteremia had no effect on recurrence risk. Although several underlying conditions and infection sources increased recurrence risk, 3GC-resistant Klebsiella spp. was associated with the greatest increase. These results demonstrate a new facet to illness induced by 3GC-resistant Klebsiella spp. and E. coli in the community setting.

EID Abbara S, Guillemot D, Smith D, El Oualydy S, Kos M, Poret C, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance as Risk Factor for Recurrent Bacteremia after Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella spp. Community-Onset Bacteremia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):974-983. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231555
AMA Abbara S, Guillemot D, Smith D, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance as Risk Factor for Recurrent Bacteremia after Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella spp. Community-Onset Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):974-983. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231555.
APA Abbara, S., Guillemot, D., Smith, D., El Oualydy, S., Kos, M., Poret, C....Watier, L. (2024). Antimicrobial Resistance as Risk Factor for Recurrent Bacteremia after Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella spp. Community-Onset Bacteremia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 974-983. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231555.

Epidemiologic Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Suids, Spain [PDF - 1.83 MB - 7 pages]

M. Frías et al.

We conducted a cross-sectional study in wild boar and extensively managed Iberian pig populations in a hotspot area of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Spain. We tested for antibodies against CCHFV by using 2 ELISAs in parallel. We assessed the presence of CCHFV RNA by means of reverse transcription quantitative PCR protocol, which detects all genotypes. A total of 113 (21.8%) of 518 suids sampled showed antibodies against CCHFV by ELISA. By species, 106 (39.7%) of 267 wild boars and 7 (2.8%) of 251 Iberian pigs analyzed were seropositive. Of the 231 Iberian pigs and 231 wild boars analyzed, none tested positive for CCHFV RNA. These findings indicate high CCHFV exposure in wild boar populations in endemic areas and confirm the susceptibility of extensively reared pigs to CCHFV, even though they may only play a limited role in the enzootic cycle.

EID Frías M, Fischer K, Castro-Scholten S, Bost C, Cano-Terriza D, Risalde M, et al. Epidemiologic Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Suids, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):984-990. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.240074
AMA Frías M, Fischer K, Castro-Scholten S, et al. Epidemiologic Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Suids, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):984-990. doi:10.3201/eid3005.240074.
APA Frías, M., Fischer, K., Castro-Scholten, S., Bost, C., Cano-Terriza, D., Risalde, M....García-Bocanegra, I. (2024). Epidemiologic Survey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Suids, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 984-990. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.240074.
Dispatches

Detection of Recombinant African Swine Fever Virus Strains of p72 Genotypes I and II in Domestic Pigs, Vietnam, 2023 [PDF - 1.87 MB - 4 pages]

V. Le et al.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype II is endemic to Vietnam. We detected recombinant ASFV genotypes I and II (rASFV I/II) strains in domestic pigs from 6 northern provinces in Vietnam. The introduction of rASFV I/II strains could complicate ongoing ASFV control measures in the region.

EID Le V, Nguyen V, Le T, Mai N, Nguyen V, Than T, et al. Detection of Recombinant African Swine Fever Virus Strains of p72 Genotypes I and II in Domestic Pigs, Vietnam, 2023. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):991-994. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231775
AMA Le V, Nguyen V, Le T, et al. Detection of Recombinant African Swine Fever Virus Strains of p72 Genotypes I and II in Domestic Pigs, Vietnam, 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):991-994. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231775.
APA Le, V., Nguyen, V., Le, T., Mai, N., Nguyen, V., Than, T....Ambagala, A. (2024). Detection of Recombinant African Swine Fever Virus Strains of p72 Genotypes I and II in Domestic Pigs, Vietnam, 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 991-994. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231775.

Toxoplasma gondii Infections and Associated Factors in Female Children and Adolescents, Germany [PDF - 1.41 MB - 5 pages]

In a representative sample of female children and adolescents in Germany, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was 6.3% (95% CI 4.7%–8.0%). With each year of life, the chance of being seropositive increased by 1.2, indicating a strong force of infection. Social status and municipality size were found to be associated with seropositivity.

EID Giese L, Seeber F, Aebischer A, Kuhnert R, Schlaud M, Stark K, et al. Toxoplasma gondii Infections and Associated Factors in Female Children and Adolescents, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):995-999. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231045
AMA Giese L, Seeber F, Aebischer A, et al. Toxoplasma gondii Infections and Associated Factors in Female Children and Adolescents, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):995-999. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231045.
APA Giese, L., Seeber, F., Aebischer, A., Kuhnert, R., Schlaud, M., Stark, K....Wilking, H. (2024). Toxoplasma gondii Infections and Associated Factors in Female Children and Adolescents, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 995-999. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231045.

Paranannizziopsis spp. Infection in Wild Vipers, Europe [PDF - 1.75 MB - 4 pages]

G. Blanvillain et al.

We describe the detection of Paranannizziopsis sp. fungus in a wild population of vipers in Europe. Fungal infections were severe, and 1 animal likely died from infection. Surveillance efforts are needed to better understand the threat of this pathogen to snake conservation.

EID Blanvillain G, Martínez-Freiría F, Hoyt JR, Lorch JM, Martinez-Silvestre A. Paranannizziopsis spp. Infection in Wild Vipers, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1000-1003. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231317
AMA Blanvillain G, Martínez-Freiría F, Hoyt JR, et al. Paranannizziopsis spp. Infection in Wild Vipers, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1000-1003. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231317.
APA Blanvillain, G., Martínez-Freiría, F., Hoyt, J. R., Lorch, J. M., & Martinez-Silvestre, A. (2024). Paranannizziopsis spp. Infection in Wild Vipers, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1000-1003. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231317.

Protective Efficacy of Lyophilized Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines in Animal Model [PDF - 1.56 MB - 5 pages]

A. Salawudeen et al.

We evaluated the in vitro effects of lyophilization for 2 vesicular stomatitis virus–based vaccines by using 3 stabilizing formulations and demonstrated protective immunity of lyophilized/reconstituted vaccine in guinea pigs. Lyophilization increased stability of the vaccines, but specific vesicular stomatitis virus–based vaccines will each require extensive analysis to optimize stabilizing formulations.

EID Salawudeen A, Soule G, Tailor N, Klassen L, Audet J, Sloan A, et al. Protective Efficacy of Lyophilized Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines in Animal Model. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1004-1008. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231248
AMA Salawudeen A, Soule G, Tailor N, et al. Protective Efficacy of Lyophilized Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines in Animal Model. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1004-1008. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231248.
APA Salawudeen, A., Soule, G., Tailor, N., Klassen, L., Audet, J., Sloan, A....Safronetz, D. (2024). Protective Efficacy of Lyophilized Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines in Animal Model. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1004-1008. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231248.

Serogroup B Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Older Adults Identified by Genomic Surveillance, England, 2022–2023 [PDF - 808 KB - 4 pages]

E. Loud et al.

We report a cluster of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease identified via genomic surveillance in older adults in England and describe the public health responses. Genomic surveillance is critical for supporting public health investigations and detecting the growing threat of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis infections in older adults.

EID Loud E, Clark SA, Edwards DS, Knapper E, Emmett L, Ladhani S, et al. Serogroup B Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Older Adults Identified by Genomic Surveillance, England, 2022–2023. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1009-1012. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231714
AMA Loud E, Clark SA, Edwards DS, et al. Serogroup B Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Older Adults Identified by Genomic Surveillance, England, 2022–2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1009-1012. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231714.
APA Loud, E., Clark, S. A., Edwards, D. S., Knapper, E., Emmett, L., Ladhani, S....Campbell, H. (2024). Serogroup B Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Older Adults Identified by Genomic Surveillance, England, 2022–2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1009-1012. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231714.

Molecular Epidemiology of Mayaro Virus among Febrile Patients, Roraima State, Brazil, 2018–2021 [PDF - 1.24 MB - 4 pages]

J. Forato et al.

We detected Mayaro virus (MAYV) in 3.4% (28/822) of febrile patients tested during 2018–2021 from Roraima State, Brazil. We also isolated MAYV strains and confirmed that these cases were caused by genotype D. Improved surveillance is needed to better determine the burden of MAYV in the Amazon Region.

EID Forato J, Meira CA, Claro IM, Amorim MR, de Souza GF, Muraro SP, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Mayaro Virus among Febrile Patients, Roraima State, Brazil, 2018–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1013-1016. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231406
AMA Forato J, Meira CA, Claro IM, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Mayaro Virus among Febrile Patients, Roraima State, Brazil, 2018–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1013-1016. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231406.
APA Forato, J., Meira, C. A., Claro, I. M., Amorim, M. R., de Souza, G. F., Muraro, S. P....Proenca-Modena, J. (2024). Molecular Epidemiology of Mayaro Virus among Febrile Patients, Roraima State, Brazil, 2018–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1013-1016. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231406.

Seasonal Patterns of Mpox Index Cases, Africa, 1970–2021 [PDF - 2.21 MB - 5 pages]

C. Besombes et al.

Across 133 confirmed mpox zoonotic index cases reported during 1970–2021 in Africa, cases occurred year-round near the equator, where climate is consistent. However, in tropical regions of the northern hemisphere under a dry/wet season cycle, cases occurred seasonally. Our findings further support the seasonality of mpox zoonotic transmission risk.

EID Besombes C, Mbrenga F, Gonofio E, Malaka C, Bationo C, Gaudart J, et al. Seasonal Patterns of Mpox Index Cases, Africa, 1970–2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1017-1021. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230293
AMA Besombes C, Mbrenga F, Gonofio E, et al. Seasonal Patterns of Mpox Index Cases, Africa, 1970–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1017-1021. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230293.
APA Besombes, C., Mbrenga, F., Gonofio, E., Malaka, C., Bationo, C., Gaudart, J....Landier, J. (2024). Seasonal Patterns of Mpox Index Cases, Africa, 1970–2021. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1017-1021. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230293.

Recurrence, Microevolution, and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Legionella pneumophila Sequence Type 1905, Portugal, 2014–2022 [PDF - 837 KB - 4 pages]

V. Manageiro et al.

We investigated molecular evolution and spatiotemporal dynamics of atypical Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 sequence type 1905 and determined its long-term persistence and linkage to human disease in dispersed locations, far beyond the large 2014 outbreak epicenter in Portugal. Our finding highlights the need for public health interventions to prevent further disease spread.

EID Manageiro V, Borges V, Rodrigues R, Bettencourt C, Silva C, Gomes J, et al. Recurrence, Microevolution, and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Legionella pneumophila Sequence Type 1905, Portugal, 2014–2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1022-1025. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231383
AMA Manageiro V, Borges V, Rodrigues R, et al. Recurrence, Microevolution, and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Legionella pneumophila Sequence Type 1905, Portugal, 2014–2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1022-1025. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231383.
APA Manageiro, V., Borges, V., Rodrigues, R., Bettencourt, C., Silva, C., Gomes, J....Gonçalves, P. (2024). Recurrence, Microevolution, and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Legionella pneumophila Sequence Type 1905, Portugal, 2014–2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1022-1025. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231383.

Antigenic Characterization of Novel Human Norovirus GII.4 Variants San Francisco 2017 and Hong Kong 2019 [PDF - 1.40 MB - 4 pages]

K. Tohma et al.

Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis; GII.4 is the predominant strain in humans. Recently, 2 new GII.4 variants, Hong Kong 2019 and San Francisco 2017, were reported. Characterization using GII.4 monoclonal antibodies and serum demonstrated different antigenic profiles for the new variants compared with historical variants.

EID Tohma K, Landivar M, Ford-Siltz LA, Pilewski KA, Kendra JA, Niendorf S, et al. Antigenic Characterization of Novel Human Norovirus GII.4 Variants San Francisco 2017 and Hong Kong 2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1026-1029. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231694
AMA Tohma K, Landivar M, Ford-Siltz LA, et al. Antigenic Characterization of Novel Human Norovirus GII.4 Variants San Francisco 2017 and Hong Kong 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1026-1029. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231694.
APA Tohma, K., Landivar, M., Ford-Siltz, L. A., Pilewski, K. A., Kendra, J. A., Niendorf, S....Parra, G. I. (2024). Antigenic Characterization of Novel Human Norovirus GII.4 Variants San Francisco 2017 and Hong Kong 2019. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1026-1029. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231694.

Interventional Study of Nonpharmaceutical Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Aboard Cruise Ships [PDF - 295 KB - 4 pages]

V. A. Mouchtouri et al.

Cruise ships carrying COVID-19–vaccinated populations applied near-identical nonpharmaceutical measures during July–November 2021; passenger masking was not applied on 2 ships. Infection risk for masked passengers was 14.58 times lower than for unmasked passengers and 19.61 times lower than in the community. Unmasked passengers’ risk was slightly lower than community risk.

EID Mouchtouri VA, Kourentis L, Anagnostopoulos L, Koureas M, Kyritsi M, Kontouli K, et al. Interventional Study of Nonpharmaceutical Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Aboard Cruise Ships. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1030-1033. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231364
AMA Mouchtouri VA, Kourentis L, Anagnostopoulos L, et al. Interventional Study of Nonpharmaceutical Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Aboard Cruise Ships. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1030-1033. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231364.
APA Mouchtouri, V. A., Kourentis, L., Anagnostopoulos, L., Koureas, M., Kyritsi, M., Kontouli, K....Hadjichristodoulou, C. (2024). Interventional Study of Nonpharmaceutical Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Aboard Cruise Ships. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1030-1033. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231364.
Research Letters

Novel Variant and Known Mutation in 23S rRNA Gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Northern Vietnam, 2023 [PDF - 970 KB - 3 pages]

D. Nguyen et al.

During a 2023 outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae–associated community-acquired pneumonia among children in northern Vietnam, we analyzed M. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharyngeal samples. In almost half (6 of 13) of samples tested, we found known A2063G mutations (macrolide resistance) and a novel C2353T variant on the 23S rRNA gene.

EID Nguyen D, Ho N, Dover LG, Vo A, Ly H, Doan P, et al. Novel Variant and Known Mutation in 23S rRNA Gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Northern Vietnam, 2023. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1034-1036. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231632
AMA Nguyen D, Ho N, Dover LG, et al. Novel Variant and Known Mutation in 23S rRNA Gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Northern Vietnam, 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1034-1036. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231632.
APA Nguyen, D., Ho, N., Dover, L. G., Vo, A., Ly, H., Doan, P....Tran, H. (2024). Novel Variant and Known Mutation in 23S rRNA Gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Northern Vietnam, 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1034-1036. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231632.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks Collected from Cattle, Corsica, France, 2023 [PDF - 3.03 MB - 4 pages]

P. Kiwan et al.

We report the detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Corsica, France. We identified CCHFV African genotype I in ticks collected from cattle at 2 different sites in southeastern and central-western Corsica, indicating an established CCHFV circulation. Healthcare professionals and at-risk groups should be alerted to CCHFV circulation in Corsica.

EID Kiwan P, Masse S, Piorkowski G, Ayhan N, Gasparine M, Vial L, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks Collected from Cattle, Corsica, France, 2023. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1036-1039. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231742
AMA Kiwan P, Masse S, Piorkowski G, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks Collected from Cattle, Corsica, France, 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1036-1039. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231742.
APA Kiwan, P., Masse, S., Piorkowski, G., Ayhan, N., Gasparine, M., Vial, L....Falchi, A. (2024). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks Collected from Cattle, Corsica, France, 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1036-1039. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231742.

Deforestation and Bovine Rabies Outbreaks in Costa Rica, 1985–2020 [PDF - 758 KB - 4 pages]

C. Jones et al.

In Latin America, rabies virus has persisted in a cycle between Desmodus rotundus vampire bats and cattle, potentially enhanced by deforestation. We modeled bovine rabies virus outbreaks in Costa Rica relative to land-use indicators and found spatial-temporal relationships among rabies virus outbreaks with deforestation as a predictor.

EID Jones C, Vicente-Santos A, Clennon JA, Gillespie TR. Deforestation and Bovine Rabies Outbreaks in Costa Rica, 1985–2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1039-1042. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230927
AMA Jones C, Vicente-Santos A, Clennon JA, et al. Deforestation and Bovine Rabies Outbreaks in Costa Rica, 1985–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1039-1042. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230927.
APA Jones, C., Vicente-Santos, A., Clennon, J. A., & Gillespie, T. R. (2024). Deforestation and Bovine Rabies Outbreaks in Costa Rica, 1985–2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1039-1042. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230927.

Novel Patterns in High-Resolution Computed Tomography in Whipple Pneumonia [PDF - 1.19 MB - 4 pages]

H. Li et al.

With the use of metagenomic next-generation sequencing, patients diagnosed with Whipple pneumonia are being increasingly correctly diagnosed. We report a series of 3 cases in China that showed a novel pattern of movable infiltrates and upper lung micronodules. After treatment, the 3 patients recovered, and lung infiltrates resolved.

EID Li H, Wu J, Mai X, Zeng W, Cai S, Huang X, et al. Novel Patterns in High-Resolution Computed Tomography in Whipple Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1042-1045. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231130
AMA Li H, Wu J, Mai X, et al. Novel Patterns in High-Resolution Computed Tomography in Whipple Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1042-1045. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231130.
APA Li, H., Wu, J., Mai, X., Zeng, W., Cai, S., Huang, X....Xie, C. (2024). Novel Patterns in High-Resolution Computed Tomography in Whipple Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1042-1045. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231130.

Detection of Influenza D Antibodies in Dogs, Apulia Region, Italy, 2016 and 2023 [PDF - 282 KB - 3 pages]

C. Trombetta et al.

Dogs are known to be susceptible to influenza A viruses, although information on influenza D virus (IDV) is limited. We investigated the seroprevalence of IDV in 426 dogs in the Apulia region of Italy during 2016 and 2023. A total of 14 samples were positive for IDV antibodies, suggesting exposure to IDV in dogs.

EID Trombetta C, Marchi S, Marotta M, Moreno A, Chiapponi C, Montomoli E, et al. Detection of Influenza D Antibodies in Dogs, Apulia Region, Italy, 2016 and 2023. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1045-1047. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231401
AMA Trombetta C, Marchi S, Marotta M, et al. Detection of Influenza D Antibodies in Dogs, Apulia Region, Italy, 2016 and 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1045-1047. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231401.
APA Trombetta, C., Marchi, S., Marotta, M., Moreno, A., Chiapponi, C., Montomoli, E....Martella, V. (2024). Detection of Influenza D Antibodies in Dogs, Apulia Region, Italy, 2016 and 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1045-1047. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231401.

Detection of OXA-181 Carbapenemase in Shigella flexneri [PDF - 326 KB - 3 pages]

G. Dhabaan et al.

We report the detection of OXA-181 carbapenemase in an azithromycin-resistant Shigella spp. bacteria in an immunocompromised patient. The emergence of OXA-181 in Shigella spp. bacteria raises concerns about the global dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacterales and its implications for the treatment of infections caused by Shigella bacteria.

EID Dhabaan G, Jamal H, Ouellette D, Alexander S, Arane K, Campigotto A, et al. Detection of OXA-181 Carbapenemase in Shigella flexneri. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1048-1050. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231558
AMA Dhabaan G, Jamal H, Ouellette D, et al. Detection of OXA-181 Carbapenemase in Shigella flexneri. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1048-1050. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231558.
APA Dhabaan, G., Jamal, H., Ouellette, D., Alexander, S., Arane, K., Campigotto, A....Piché-Renaud, P. (2024). Detection of OXA-181 Carbapenemase in Shigella flexneri. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1048-1050. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231558.

SARS-CoV-2 IgG Levels as Predictors of XBB Variant Neutralization, Israel, 2022­ and 2023 [PDF - 703 KB - 3 pages]

Y. Lustig et al.

Although a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron-XBB.1.5 variant is available worldwide and recent infection is protective, the lack of recorded infection data highlights the need to assess variant-specific antibody neutralization levels. We analyzed IgG levels against receptor-binding domain–specific SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain as a correlate for high neutralizing titers against XBB variants.

EID Lustig Y, Canetti M, Indenbaum V, Peretz Y, Weiss-Ottolenghi Y, Margalit I, et al. SARS-CoV-2 IgG Levels as Predictors of XBB Variant Neutralization, Israel, 2022­ and 2023. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1050-1052. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231739
AMA Lustig Y, Canetti M, Indenbaum V, et al. SARS-CoV-2 IgG Levels as Predictors of XBB Variant Neutralization, Israel, 2022­ and 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1050-1052. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231739.
APA Lustig, Y., Canetti, M., Indenbaum, V., Peretz, Y., Weiss-Ottolenghi, Y., Margalit, I....Regev-Yochay, G. (2024). SARS-CoV-2 IgG Levels as Predictors of XBB Variant Neutralization, Israel, 2022­ and 2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1050-1052. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231739.

Sporotrichosis Cluster in Domestic Cats and Veterinary Technician, Kansas, USA, 2022 [PDF - 1.51 MB - 3 pages]

I. Hennessee et al.

We describe a feline sporotrichosis cluster and zoonotic transmission between one of the affected cats and a technician at a veterinary clinic in Kansas, USA. Increased awareness of sporotrichosis and the potential for zoonotic transmission could help veterinary professionals manage feline cases and take precautions to prevent human acquisition.

EID Hennessee I, Barber E, Petro E, Lindemann S, Buss B, Santos A, et al. Sporotrichosis Cluster in Domestic Cats and Veterinary Technician, Kansas, USA, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1053-1055. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231563
AMA Hennessee I, Barber E, Petro E, et al. Sporotrichosis Cluster in Domestic Cats and Veterinary Technician, Kansas, USA, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1053-1055. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231563.
APA Hennessee, I., Barber, E., Petro, E., Lindemann, S., Buss, B., Santos, A....Toda, M. (2024). Sporotrichosis Cluster in Domestic Cats and Veterinary Technician, Kansas, USA, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1053-1055. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231563.

Burkholderia thailandensis Isolated from Infected Wound, Southwest China, 2022 [PDF - 715 KB - 3 pages]

J. Li et al.

We report a clinical isolate of Burkholderia thailandensis 2022DZh obtained from a patient with an infected wound in southwest China. Genomic analysis indicates that this isolate clusters with B. thailandensis BPM, a human isolate from Chongqing, China. We recommend enhancing monitoring and surveillance for B. thailandensis infection in both humans and livestock.

EID Li J, Tan J, Xiong X, Zhong Q, Lu W. Burkholderia thailandensis Isolated from Infected Wound, Southwest China, 2022. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1055-1057. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230743
AMA Li J, Tan J, Xiong X, et al. Burkholderia thailandensis Isolated from Infected Wound, Southwest China, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1055-1057. doi:10.3201/eid3005.230743.
APA Li, J., Tan, J., Xiong, X., Zhong, Q., & Lu, W. (2024). Burkholderia thailandensis Isolated from Infected Wound, Southwest China, 2022. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1055-1057. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.230743.

Reemergence of Bordetella parapertussis, United States, 2019–2023 [PDF - 610 KB - 3 pages]

B. A. Noble et al.

To determine changes in Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis detection rates, we analyzed 1.43 million respiratory multiplex PCR test results from US facilities from 2019 through mid-2023. From mid-2022 through mid-2023, Bordetella spp. detection increased 8.5-fold; 95% of detections were B. parapertussis. While B. parapertussis rates increased, B. pertussis rates decreased.

EID Noble BA, Jiudice SS, Jones JD, Timbrook TT. Reemergence of Bordetella parapertussis, United States, 2019–2023. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1058-1060. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231278
AMA Noble BA, Jiudice SS, Jones JD, et al. Reemergence of Bordetella parapertussis, United States, 2019–2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1058-1060. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231278.
APA Noble, B. A., Jiudice, S. S., Jones, J. D., & Timbrook, T. T. (2024). Reemergence of Bordetella parapertussis, United States, 2019–2023. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1058-1060. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231278.

Sphingobium yanoikuyae Bacteremia, Japan [PDF - 918 KB - 3 pages]

Y. Miyamatsu et al.

We report a case of Sphingobium yanoikuyae bacteremia in an 89-year-old patient in Japan. No standard antimicrobial regimen has been established for S. yanoikuyae infections. However, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime treatments were effective in this case. Increased antimicrobial susceptibility data are needed to establish appropriate treatments for S. yanoikuyae.

EID Miyamatsu Y, Tanizaki R, Yamada S. Sphingobium yanoikuyae Bacteremia, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1060-1062. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231514
AMA Miyamatsu Y, Tanizaki R, Yamada S. Sphingobium yanoikuyae Bacteremia, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1060-1062. doi:10.3201/eid3005.231514.
APA Miyamatsu, Y., Tanizaki, R., & Yamada, S. (2024). Sphingobium yanoikuyae Bacteremia, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1060-1062. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.231514.
About the Cover

A Looming Storm on the Horizon [PDF - 2.59 MB - 2 pages]

B. Breedlove

EID Breedlove B. A Looming Storm on the Horizon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2024;30(5):1063-1064. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.ac3005
AMA Breedlove B. A Looming Storm on the Horizon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2024;30(5):1063-1064. doi:10.3201/eid3005.ac3005.
APA Breedlove, B. (2024). A Looming Storm on the Horizon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 30(5), 1063-1064. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3005.ac3005.
Emerging Infectious Diseases - CDC (2024)
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